Having determined the feasibility of small-molecule profiling for radiation biodosimetry with total body, high dose-rate, external-beam γ-ray exposures and having established the field of radiation metabolomics using cultured cells and animals, our present efforts extend radiation metabolomics to studies of radiation exposures that will typically occur during a radiologic or nuclear event. Real-world, population-level exposure scenarios will include various qualities of radiation and differentially exposed tissues and organs. In particular, we are expanding our research into more real-world scenarios such as low dose-rate exposures, partial body exposures resulting from shielding of certain organs and tissues, exposures to radioisotopes following an IND or RDD, and mixed exposures to neutrons and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation typical of an IND. We are also focusing attention on the development of prognostic biomarkers to predict individual outcomes from near lethal exposures as well as the mechanisms involved in biomarker responses. Continuous development of bioinformatic approaches aims to answer complex questions about the connection of the biomarkers and the pathway involvement, in addition to developing new algorithms of biomarker identification.